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天津快乐10分开奖给我: 日本清酒能讓美國稻米產業煥發第二春?

天津快乐10分预测 www.mkjab.com Billy Lyons 2019年06月05日

阿肯色州如果能夠成為新興的美國清酒產業基地,也必然會給該州帶來巨大的商機。

本·貝爾在日本的一處種植大米的合作農場里工作。圖片來源:Courtesy of Ben Bell

美國不少愛喝酒的旅人都慕名去過肯塔基州的波旁小道和納帕酒鄉,但開車穿越阿肯色州去尋找清酒的人卻并不多。

不過,本·貝爾卻希望,隨著美國人對清酒的興趣與日俱增,將會有越來越多的人來到他的家鄉,來一趟“清酒之旅”。

貝爾是北美清酒釀造商協會的內容總監。他表示:“多年來,我一直夢想在阿肯色州開辟一條‘清酒小道’,它可以成為我們的三角洲地區的門戶,而美國的大多數大米都是在這一區域內生產的?!?/p>

阿肯色州的大米年產量占全美的40%以上,每年創收約20億美元,但阿肯色州目前還沒有一家清酒釀造廠。其他一些以釀酒業為主的地區已經迎來了旅游業和國際業務的雙豐收,阿肯色州如果能夠成為新興的美國清酒產業基地,也必然會給該州帶來巨大的商機。

根據美國人口統計局2017年的美國社會調查數據,阿肯色州的家庭中位收入在美國的50個州中排名第48位。雖然沒有確切數據能夠說明清酒產業會對阿肯色州的數據產生多大影響,但通過分析相似行業數據可以得知,投資清酒產業,必將對當地經濟發展產生積極影響。為了基于美國大米搞清酒產業,阿肯色州英格蘭市的伊斯貝爾農?。↖sbell Farms)已經在培育專門用于釀酒的稻種——比如名貴的“山田錦”,很多人認為這種稻米只能在日本生長。很多清酒公司都把這種稻米作為必不可少的原料。

在肯塔基州,波旁威士忌酒業是當地經濟的重要貢獻者。路易斯維爾大學(University of Louisville)的保羅·庫姆斯博士和經濟顧問巴里·科恩斯坦最近的一項研究得出結論:“釀酒業每年對經濟的總影響是20,100個工作崗位,每年的工資總額為10億美元,創造了86億美元的經濟產出?!?016年,Visit Napa Valley發布的一份報告顯示,在加州,葡萄酒廠品酒是該地區最受歡迎的旅游活動,為加州旅游業貢獻了19.2億美元的游客支出。

While Kentucky’s Bourbon Trail and Napa Wine Country are two regions beloved by travelers in search of America’s tastiest drinks, driving through Arkansas in search of sake hasn’t caught on quite yet.

However, Ben Bell is hoping America’s growing interest in craft sake will eventually lead to an official trail in his home state.

“For years I have dreamed about a sake trail in Arkansas that can be also be a gateway to our Delta region, where most U.S. rice is produced,” says Bell, director of content for the Sake Brewers Association of North America.

Though Arkansas produces over 40% of America’s rice annually—generating an estimated revenue of $2 billion dollars per year—there are currently no sake breweries in the state. And with the success other regions have had with tourists and international businesses intrigued by alcohol production, there’s a huge opportunity for the emerging American craft sake industry to create a home base in Arkansas.

According to data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 American Community Survey, Arkansas ranks 48 out of 50 states in terms of median household income. While there isn’t any definitive data that measures how much of an economic impact the American craft sake industry would have on the state, data from similar industries strongly suggests that an investment in craft sake breweries would have a positive impact on local communities. One Arkansas farm that’s already been able to bridge the gap between American rice and the sake industry is Isbell Farms in England, Ark. Owner Chris Isbell developed sake-specific rice varieties—like the prized Yamada Nishiki—that many thought could only grow in Japan and is currently working with a variety of sake companies to provide them this essential ingredient.

In Kentucky, the bourbon distilling industry is a serious contributor to the local economy. A recent study by Dr. Paul Coombes of the University of Louisville and economic consultant Barry Kornstein concluded “that the total annual economic impact of the distilling industry is 20,100 jobs, with annual payroll of $1 billion, producing $8.6 billion of economic output.” In California, a 2016 report by Visit Napa Valley revealed wine tasting at wineries to be the region’s most popular tourist activity, contributing to a tourism industry that generated $1.92 billion of visitor spending within the county.

布魯克林區的Kura是紐約的第一家清酒釀造廠。圖片來源:Courtesy of @godaddy

不過,要想在一個州建立一個全新的產業,并非光靠建幾家釀酒廠就夠了。為了真正取得成功,貝爾和他的同行們還要向公眾普及清酒的歷史、釀造技術,以及如何正確地飲用清酒。

貝爾表示:“關于清酒是怎樣進入美國的,有很多有趣的歷史,而且它的歷史比你想象的還要悠久?!泵攔牡諞患儀寰頗鷦斐в?901年在伯克利成立,還有一些清酒廠開了又關,位置多數集中在夏威夷和加州。美國現存最早的清酒廠可以追溯到20世紀70年代。

學習曲線

盡管清酒生產在美國并不是什么新鮮事物,但隨著清酒作坊在美國各大城市興起,有不少人對清酒產生了新的興趣。很多美國人第一次體驗清酒,喝的是將清酒連杯丟進啤酒里的“深水炸彈”,要么就是從一個小盒子端上來的。但凡嘗試過“深水炸彈”的威力,很多人便會對清酒敬而遠之。

之所以會有這種糟糕的體驗,往往是由于他們飲用的是低等清酒,而且只是為了用來加強啤酒的口味。有經驗的酒友都知道,還有一些其他方法可以體驗清酒的豐富口感?!澳愕萌ヒ惶巳氈?,對新鮮的、當地的、物美價廉的清酒有第一手的體驗,才會像我一樣有了創辦布魯克林Kura公司的念頭?!輩祭扯鰲げ茲縭撬?。2018年,他開辦了紐約州的第一家清酒釀造廠。

However, building multiple sake breweries is only part of the challenge when thinking about how to ingratiate a completely new industry in a state. In order to truly achieve success, Bell and his fellow craft sake makers will have to educate the public about sake’s history, brewing techniques, and how to properly drink the beverage.

“There is a lot of interesting history about sake coming to the United States, and it’s older than you might think,” Bell says. The first sake brewery in the U.S. was established in Berkeley in 1901, he notes, while others came and went, mostly in Hawaii and California. Today’s oldest sake breweries date back to the 1970s.

A Learning Curve

Although sake production is not new to the United States, there’s currently a new wave of interest thanks to craft sake operations popping up in cities across the country. Many Americans first experience sake as a warm shot dropped into a beer or served out of a small box, the memory of a night filled with sake bombs enough for many to steer clear of the drink.

However, those poor experiences are often the result of a low-grade product being used to flavor beer. Seasoned sake drinkers know there are other ways to experience the complexities of this drink. “It really took a trip to Japan and a firsthand experience with fresh, local, and affordable sake to seed the idea of creating Brooklyn Kura,“ says Brian Polen, who opened New York State’s first sake brewery in 2018.

位于布魯克林的一家清酒釀造廠的首席釀酒師布蘭登·道根在取樣檢查。圖片來源:Courtesy of @godaddy

“清酒忍者”克里斯·約翰遜是一名認證的清酒侍酒大師,他在日本留學期間就迷上了清酒。他回憶起第一次收到別人贈送的一瓶八鹿酒造株氏會社的純米大吟釀的經歷:“在一個多數人是農民的小鎮里,我們從沒喝過高檔清酒,所以在那天之前,我都沒有真正喝過好的清酒。我向所有在場的人倒了酒,說了一聲‘干杯’,從此我的人生被徹底改變了?!?/p>

清酒之所以獨特,“清酒小道”的概念之所以吸引人,也是因為不同清酒口味各異?!澳鵓普咴諛鷦旃討鋅梢遠躍剖┘雍艽笥跋?,因此,清酒可以有濃醇、甘甜、花香、酸味等各種口味,以及這些口味的復合口味?!輩捉饈偷?。

清酒經常被錯誤地與米酒劃等號,但它實際上是由五種成分發酵而成的產物,它們分別是大米、水、曲霉、酵母和乳酸。清酒因其添加的蒸餾酒的量和稻米品種的不同,而呈現出各種不同風味。

美國的清酒行業還處在起步階段,所以現在還沒有一種明確的“美式清酒”風格。不過展望未來,美國清酒未必不能躋身世界最佳清酒之列。貝爾表示:“美國的紅酒和啤酒有大卡利紅酒、啤酒花精釀啤酒等獨特風格,美國清酒能夠形成這樣的獨特風格嗎?我認為現在下結論還為時過早。要有更多的釀酒商、更多的時間,才有可能形成一個獨特的風格。不過,美國人喜歡大膽實驗,可以預見,未來肯定會有很多這樣的大膽嘗試?!?

Similarly, “Sake Ninja” Chris Johnson, a certified sake sommelier, became enamored with the drink while teaching abroad in Japan. “As a small town of mostly farmers we did not drink fancy sake, ever. So I have not had really great sake before this day. I poured out glasses to all in attendance and we said Kanpai and my life was changed forever,” Johnson recalled about the bottle of Yatsushika Junmai Daiginjo he received as a parting gift.

Part of what makes sake so unique, and the idea of a trail so appealing, is that the range of flavors between different types of sakes varies. “Brewers have a lot of leverage in the sake-making process, and as a result, sake can be savory, sweet, floral, or acidic, and combinations thereof,” Polen says.

Though often (mistakenly) referred to as a rice wine, sake is actually the result of fermentation created by combining five ingredients: rice, water, a mold known as koji, yeast, and lactic acid. Sake styles vary depending on the amount of distilled alcohol added to sake as well as the type of rice milled.

While there’s no definitive U.S. style given the industry’s infancy, there’s a lot to like about the prospect of American sake eventually joining the ranks of the world’s finest. “Does American sake have a style like our big Cali wines and hoppy craft beers? I think the answer right now is that it is too early to say,” Bell says. “We need more brewers and more time to see a distinctive style form. However, one thing Americans love is bold experimentation, and I think you can expect plenty of that in the future.”

布魯克林Kura清酒。圖片來源:Courtesy of @godaddy

目前,美國清酒產業的幾家龍頭企業正在致力于用當地原料生產出最好的清酒?!拔胰銜飫锏娜訟不肚寰粕睦砟?,也非常明白清酒與稻米產業的關系。他們雖然對清酒產業的前景持懷疑態度,但這也是可以理解的?!北炊硎荊骸岸?,我認識的人大多沒有喝過真正的好清酒。這就好比有些人只在意大利餐廳喝過低檔紅酒,你向他們推廣紅酒產業,肯定事倍功半?!?/p>

作為阿肯色州清酒產業奠基人的貝爾目前正在休假,以更好地扮演他在清酒釀造商協會的新角色。這個身份可能最終會幫助他對整個行業產生更大影響。他表示:“十年來,我一直努力用清酒闖出一條路,現在,我可能已經到了讓這條路指引我的時候了?!?span>(財富中文網)

譯者:樸成奎

For now, American sake spokespeople are concentrating on making the best sakes they can using locally available ingredients. “I think people here like the idea of sake production and very much understand the connection with our rice industry. But they are understandably skeptical of the potential,” Bell says. “Also, it doesn’t help that most people I talk to have never had really good sake. It’s like pitching a wine industry to people if they had only drank jug wine at an Italian restaurant once or twice.”

Arkansas’ sake trailblazer is currently taking time off to embrace his new role at the Sake Brewers Association, a position that may ultimately help him make an even bigger impact on the industry as a whole. “For a decade,” Bell says, “I have been trying to make a path with sake, but perhaps I have gotten to the point where I can let that path guide me.”

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